PHP namespaces grouped

Consider the following code:

<?php
namespace a\b\c;
use function is_string;
use function get_class;

class main {
    protected $string;
    public function __construct( $string ) {
        if ( is_string( $string )) {
            $this->string = $string;
        } else {
            $this->string = get_class( $this );
        }
    }
}

Nothing fancy. Just a class in a namespace using two functions from the global namespace (is_string & get_class).
Those two functions are imported from the global namespace as that will give a small performance boost.

But if you have 20-30 build in PHP functions that list will get very long….

Luckily you can merge them:

use function is_string, get_class;

For now I’m not sure I’ll always import build in PHP functions, the boost is small. And it’s annoying to keep track of.

sumcheck a whole directory

For some reason files changed on a server. Site down, always fun.
Restored a backup all good. This site did not have git on the server. But I still wanted to monitor the files for changes.

The one I landed on was:

find ./ -type f -name "*.php" -not -path "./wp-content/cache/*" -exec md5sum {} + | sort -k 2 | md5sum

Let’s dissect

What does this command do step by step

find ./ -type f

In the current directory and sub directory, list all files (not directories)

find ./ -type f -name "*.php"

Limit it to php files

find ./ -type f -name "*.php" -not -path "./wp-content/cache/*"

Exclude the files in the caching directory, a bit weird syntax but it’s the one.

find ./ -type f -name "*.php" -not -path "./wp-content/cache/*" -exec md5sum {} +

For each file found run the command md5sum making a sum per file.

find ./ -type f -name "*.php" -not -path "./wp-content/cache/*" -exec md5sum {} + | sort -k 2

Next we sort the output based on filepath+name.
We sort because find might return file order inconsistently.

find ./ -type f -name "*.php" -not -path "./wp-content/cache/*" -exec md5sum {} + | sort -k 2 | md5sum

Finally we create the grand total sumcheck based on all other sumchecks.

Source
Source

WordPress the_date skipping same days

Lets take a look at this very basic loop.

$query_name = new WP_Query();

if ( $query_name->have_posts() ) :
    while ($query_name->have_posts()): $query_name->the_post();
        the_date();
        the_title();
        the_content();
    endwhile;
endif;

Nothing special right? Will by default just display the date, title and content of the first 10 posts.
But if 2 posts are published on the same day it will skip display that posts date.

When looking at the source code of the_date it compares the date of the previous post with the current using is_new_day.
I guess it can make sense in some scenario’s but too me it’s a bit weird by default.

To fix this just use

echo get_the_date();

php shorthand if

I’ve known about the shorthand if for years:

<?php echo ($username) ? $username : ''; ?>

Today If saw this which is called Ternary and has been available since 5.3 which is older than my days of coding….

<?php echo ($username) ?: ''; ?>

for & foreach loops performance

Today we will handle a case of “Premature Optimization Is the Root of All Evil“.
But this is my blog and I was working with a very big api set, and will only get bigger, so (premature) thinking about memory usage and execution time might be a good idea in the long run.

Before I started this I thought that a for loop was faster then a foreach loop. And I usually pick foreach because it’s easier to write and read.

A quick google lands on a stackoverflow question which concludes the opposite. So I started to test a bit.

There is a big difference in my use case here.

I need to remove array items that need to be excluded from the api results. Most examples you will find online are about editing items.

First tests where quite clear, using a foreach was in most configurations faster than for. The test array I create has 10000 items and every 3rth item should be excluded:

$test_array = array();
for ( $i = 0; $i <= 10000; $i ++ ) {
    $test_array[] = [
        'index'   => $i,
        'include' => ( $i % 3 === 0 ) ? true : false,
    ];
}

The traditional foreach loop

The way I have been filtering arrays for years.
Create a empty array and only put in the elements the need to be included.

$filtered_array = [];
foreach ( $test_array as $item ) {
    if ( true === $item['include'] ) {
        $filtered_array[] = $item;
    }
}
return $filtered_array;

Immediately delete item

Don’t use a between array, just unset the item in the parent array

foreach ( $test_array as $key => $item ) {
    if ( true === $item['include'] ) {
        unset( $test_array[ $key ] );
    }
}
return $test_array;

Traditional pass by reference

The same as before, but the $item is passed by reference.
This is the big difference, since we are not editing the $item we want to remove it from the parent array

$filtered_array = [];
foreach ( $test_array as &$item ) {
    if ( true === $item['include'] ) {
        $filtered_array[] = $item;
    }
}
return $filtered_array;

Immediately delete pass by reference

Again the same and agian passed by reference

foreach ( $test_array as $key => &$item ) {
    if ( true === $item['include'] ) {
        unset( $test_array[ $key ] );
    }
}
return $test_array;

The for loop

And last the for loop I was wondering about

$length = count( $test_array );
for ( $i = 0; $i < $length; $i ++ ) {
    if ( false === $test_array[ $i ]['include'] ) {
        unset( $test_array[ $i ] );
    }
}
return $test_array;

the results

I ran each of these loops 5000 times and measured the total time that took.
This was to insure the time between results was big enough to exclude the randomness (at least enough)
The test code I ran

  • 5.6122910976414sec Loop: foreach traditional
  • 6.0467801094055sec Loop: foreach unset key
  • 7.7878839969635sec Loop: foreach traditional pass by reference
  • 7.0686309337616sec Loop: foreach unset key pass by reference
  • 8.6388339996338sec Loop: for

The traditional foreach I’ve been using for years turned out to be the fastest.
Research hours well spend 🙌

Bonus edit array item

As said before most examples use editing a array.
So I also ran that scenario. Test code
I upped the loops from 5000 runs to 7500 because the difference was so small.
And still it’s close.

  • 15.363855123523sec Loop: foreach traditional
  • 10.987272024155sec Loop: foreach foreach edit array directly
  • 11.358484983444sec Loop: foreach traditional by reference
  • 14.363346099854sec Loop: for

Here the traditional is the slowest. Reference is a lot faster as most articles claim.
But editing the array directly was the fastest.

WordPress filters and anonymous functions

Anonymous functions have been around for a long time. And since WordPress now supports php 5.6 it can be safely used.
And appears to be allowed?

Personally I’m not a fan of anonymous functions in combination with WordPress actions and filters. My main concern is you can’t remove them once registered. How ever today I found a use case which was very usefull in combination with the use

My example:

<?php
/* Template name: some-template */

// Gather all data
$condition_for_title = true;
$h1_title_override = 'very heavy and complicated check';
// the H1 also needed as the <title>

add_filter( 'pre_get_document_title', function( $title ) use ($h1_title_override, $condition_for_title) {
    if ($condition_for_title) {
        return $h1_title_override;
    }
    return $title;
}, 20, 1 );

get_header();

// start body
?>
    <h1><?php echo $h1_title_override ?>

Here I pass 2 variables h1_title_override and $condition_for_title which are created outside the function. In my case these where quite complicated and heavy checks. Of course I could put those in a function and cache the result. And call that check in the filter function. But still I need to check the current template before doing the function.

More traditional Example:

in functions.php

function complicated_check() {
    // Gather all data
    $condition_for_title = true;
    $h1_title_override   = 'very heavy and complicated check';

    return [
        'condition_for_title' => $condition_for_title,
        'h1_title_override'   => $h1_title_override,
    ];
}

function title_exception_for_template( $title ) {
    if ( ! is_page_template('clean-template.php')) {
        return $title;
    }

    $template_data = complicated_check();

    if ( $template_data['condition_for_title'] ) {
        return $template_data['h1_title_override'];
    }

    return $title;
}

add_filter( 'pre_get_document_title', 'title_exception_for_template', 20, 1 );

in clean-template.php

<?php
/* Template name: clean-template */
$template_data = complicated_check();

get_header();

// start body
?>
    <h1><?php echo $template_data['h1_title_override'] ?>

Both these approaches do the same thing. But the more traditional way is a lot more code. Although it has cleaner template.
I probably won’t use this much. If the anonymous function was more complicated it will get hard to read.

But for this case I think it was neat that I could use this little feature.

Installing selfoss on a Raspberry Pi

Selfoss is an RSS reader.
We are going to install it and configure it using Nginx.

Preparing the vhost

In this example I’m using selfoss.local as the url to set it up. Change the url to whatever you want.

sudo mkdir -p /var/www/selfoss.local/public_html
sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/www/selfoss.local -R
cd /var/www/selfoss.local/public_html

Create the vhost file: sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/selfoss.local.conf

server {
    listen 80;

    server_name selfoss.local;
    root /var/www/selfoss.local/public_html;

    index index.php index.html;

    location ~* \ (gif|jpg|png) {
        expires 30d;
    }

    location ~ ^/(favicons|thumbnails)/.*$ {
        try_files $uri /data/$uri;
    }

    location ~* ^/(data\/logs|data\/sqlite|config\.ini|\.ht) {
        deny all;
    }

    location / {
        index index.php;
        try_files $uri /public/$uri /index.php$is_args$args;
    }

    location ~ \.php$ {
        include snippets/fastcgi-php.conf;
        fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php/php7.3-fpm.sock;
        fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
        fastcgi_buffers 16 16k;
        fastcgi_buffer_size 32k;
    }
}

And finally reload nginx: sudo nginx -t && sudo service nginx reload

Download Selfoss

Next we download Selfoss. On the Selfoss home page there is a download button. Copy the destination of that link.
At the time of writing it is on version 2.18 and the download zip is: [https://github.com/SSilence/selfoss/releases/download]/2.18/selfoss-2.18.zip
Replace the url if needed.

sudo wget https://github.com/SSilence/selfoss/releases/download/2.18/selfoss-2.18.zip -O selfoss.zip
sudo unzip selfoss.zip
sudo rm selfoss.zip
sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/www/selfoss.local -R

Now visit the uel. You should see an empty -but working- selfoss screen. Screenshot of selfoss empty installation

Configuration

Although this installation works we are going co configure some aspects of it.

DB connection.

Be default Selfoss uses sqlite. Mysql has a better performance. Instructions to install Mysql are in a separate article.
More detailed instruction are there. So here are the quick instructions to create a database.

Login to mysql as root: sudo mysql -uroot
Create a db, and assign a new user. !Replace the password
You can set your own database name and user.

CREATE DATABASE misc_selfoss;
CREATE USER 'selfoss'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '%%SAFE_PASSWORD%%';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `misc_selfoss`.* TO `selfoss`@`localhost`;
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
EXIT;

Creating the database for Selfoss

Next we set the db connection in the config file: sudo nano config.ini

[globals]
db_type=mysql
db_file=data/sqlite/selfoss.db
db_host=localhost
db_database=misc_feeds
db_username=janwfeeds
db_password=%%SAFE_PASSWORD%%
db_port=
db_prefix=self_

A few cleanup commands afterwards

sudo rm data/sqlite/selfoss.db
sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/www/selfoss.local -R

Password protection

To protect your selfoss installation we will set a password.
Go to your url/password in my case: http://selfoss.local/password

Screenshot of the Seelfoss password generation screen

After go got the hash add it to the config file: sudo nano config.ini

username=yourusername
password=12289fe3f69ec64cded61d0dbc01f0200ab265df0c3a2828d0e53d47bc93032698fbc7862e536c324f47edd6bd1f3e07571cca898fae140394f93632fa9334ad

Other configurations.

There are more configurations. See the official documentation Personally I prefer that items get marked as read when I open them.

auto_mark_as_read=1
homepage=unread

Now you are ready to start using Selfoss. Have fun!

WP-cli run command over each subsite

If you use WP-cli command on a multisite it be default will only run on the mainsite.
But often you want to change a setting for all the sites.
In my case I wanted to set the timezone to Amsterdam for the whole network. That’s not hard:

wp option set timezone_string 'Europe/Amsterdam'

On a multisite this is a bit more difficult. But the script below will do the same for each site in a multisite.

wp site list --field=url | xargs -I % sh -c 'printf "%\n"; wp option set timezone_string 'Europe/Amsterdam'

–url=%’

VVV disable backups

list of vvv custom action filesVVV is great but if you have 20+ sites in it most of which are quite big doing a reload or halt can be quite slow.
Disabling it isn’t the easiest. In vagrant-root/config/homebin/ create these 3 files:

  • vagrant_destroy_custom
  • vagrant_halt_custom
  • vagrant_suspend_custom

I wish there was a way to easily disable these. The vvv-custom.yml would be great for this.
Also adding a way to exclude specific databases.

source

php array; insert new item at specific index

The php function array_splice can be used to insert new items. At specific places.

<?php
$breadcrumbs = [
    'home',
    'year',
    'month',
    'day',
];
$new_crumb = [
    'category'
];
array_splice($breadcrumbs, 1, 0, $new_crumb);

The result is that category is inserted at the second place.

array (
    0 => 'home',
    1 => 'category',
    2 => 'year',
    3 => 'month',
    4 => 'day',
);